Early Years

In Early Years, the development of number sense is key. From the beginning, children use visual and physical representations of the numbers they encounter. There is a huge focus on the value of ten and how ten can be made in different ways. By the end of EYFS, children will have explored manipulating the numbers up to 10, including looking for patterns and counting beyond 20, in line with the Early Learning Goals.


In the EYFS setting, maths is visible at all times, giving children the opportunity practise and hone their learning. This extends to the outdoor area where are extensive opportunities to explore maths in different ways; there are numerous ‘self-service’ stations when the children can initiate their own maths-based activities. This supports an understanding of maths in the real world and beyond the classroom.


In Reception, we use Essentials sequences to deliver the curriculum; this means that key concepts are regularly revisited and built upon. Adults lead whole class activities where children take a highly active role in their learning. The use of ‘multisensory delivery’ gives children the opportunity to rehearse their understanding before moving to more independent activities.



In Years 1 and 2, children continue to use concrete materials to support their learning and number sense. The use of subitising is built upon from Early years, increasing mental fluency and allowing children to more efficiently and deeply recognize the value of numbers. Numbers, problems and strategies are visualised in a variety of ways including part/whole models, cherry models and numberlines.


In KS1, addition and subtraction progresses from using concrete materials, to visualising numbers using drawings of base 10, to beginning to use a basic and expanded formal method.


Division begins to be explored as sharing and grouping, including finding fractions of quantities and shapes. Multiplication is visualized as repeated addition and arranging sequences of arrays. Children are taught their 2, 5 and 10 times tables by the time they leave KS1, beginning to use Times Table Rockstars (TTRS) in practicing recall.


The core number skills learned are used to explore real world maths through a variety of measures including time, money and statistics. Children use key vocabulary to discuss and sort shapes.

Lower KS2

In LKS2, children become more efficient and fluent in calculations using the 4 main operations. More recognisable, expanded, formal methods begin to be used with the aim of empowering children to confidently use these as part of their problem solving strategies. These expanded routines are reduced to more efficient, short methods. Numbers, problems and strategies continue to be visualized in a variety of ways including part/whole models, cherry models and numberlines.


Through the continued use of CPA, the formal column methods for adding and subtracting numbers are taught and secured. These are then used in scenarios involving greater numbers, making connections between number and a variety of real world measures.


Division and multiplication are taught through CPA, leading to securing formal methods of multiplying/dividing 3-digit numbers by 1-digit numbers; this lays the foundation for progressing to calculating the larger numbers seen in UKS2. Multiplication practice increases both in school and at home to achieve fluency in all tables by the end of year 4. We use TTRS and regular weekly ‘quizzes’ to achieve this.


Shape, time, money, fractions and statistics continue to be explored, using the core skills learned. Reasoning around these areas are demonstrated through real life scenarios where appropriate.

Mathematics in upper KS2

In KS2, larger integers are used in calculations involving all four operations. Children are actively involved in choosing an appropriate strategy, whether mental or written. Models for visualisation are built upon to support solving highly abstract concepts and algebraic language is used when appropriate.


Manipulatives continue to be used to support children in making links to previous learning, particularly when introducing new methods or concepts such as algebra and ratio and proportion.


The formal column methods for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are used to answer arithmetic and reasoning questions involving large numbers, working alongside appropriate models to aid problem solving. Formal methods are shortened for greater efficiency.  Fluent and secure timestable knowledge is rehearsed through continued practice on TTRS and regular weekly ‘quizzes’.

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Use the buttons below to see what each year learns in Maths lessons.